Macronutrients Explained


Dihydrogen oxide (H2O) or water is a colourless, tasteless liquid under normal circumstances. Liquid water is essential to life and therefore is the most important and essential nutrient. Water is obtained by drinking and by eating food. It is mainly lost through perspiration, respiration and urination. Water contains no calories.

Water is the basis for the fluids of the body. Water makes up more than two-thirds of the weight of the human body. Without water, humans would die in a few days. All the cells and organs need water to function. Water is the basis of blood, saliva and the fluids surrounding the joints. Water regulates the body temperature through perspiration. It also helps prevent constipation by moving food through the intestinal tract and eliminates waste from the body through filtering by the kidneys. The human brain is around 80% water by weight and is very sensitive to dehydration. For a bodybuilder, adequate hydration is just as important than adequate nutrition. In a survival situation, hydration is much more important than nutrition.


Protein is one of the basic components of food and makes all life possible. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All of the antibodies and enzymes, and many of the hormones in the body are proteins. They provide for the transport of nutrients, oxygen and waste throughout the body. They provide the structure and contracting capability of muscles. They also provide collagen to connective tissues of the body and to the tissues of the skin, hair and nails. Proteins contain 4 calories per gram.


- Poultry: Chicken, Turkey, Goose, Game Birds, etc. (Be sure to remove skin. If buying ground meat ensure it is lean.)

- Red Meat: Any quality lean meat from Cows, Elk, Buffalo, Kangaroo, Game. (If buying ground meat ensure it is lean.)

- Other Meats: Pork, Lamb, Lean Ham, etc. (Ensure you buy the leaner cuts as these meats can be quite fatty.)

- Fish: Fresh Cod, Snapper, Salmon, Swordfish, Canned Fish. (Most fish are lean but the fattier fish are high in healthy fats)

- Shellfish: Includes: Mussels, Oysters, Scallops, Prawns, Lobsters, etc.


- Milk, Powdered Milk (Choose mostly skim milk. Can be Cow/goat/sheep, etc)

- Low Fat Cottage Cheese & Natural Yoghurt. (These foods include the benefits of bacterial cultures to improve gut health)

- Cheeses & Other Dairy Products. (Cheeses are very high in fat, choose softer cheeses where possible)

- Eggs, Powdered Egg (Egg whites are pure protein, egg yolks contain fat and protein)


- Raw Nuts & Seeds: (These are also high in healthy fats and contain carbohydrate)

- Grain Protein: (Many grains eg: wheats, rices, etc contain significant amounts of proteins)

- Bean/Vegetable Protein: (Soyabeans are the main protein source here, although other beans and vegetables contain protein)


- Whey Protein: (A fast digesting milk protein. Available in various forms/fractions)

- Casein Protein: (A slow digesting milk protein.)

- Soy Protein: (Derived from soyabeans.)

- Egg Protein: (Primarily the protein albumin, this is a slow digesting protein)

- Vegetable Proteins: (Can be found in the form of Wheat, Pea, Spirulina Protein, etc)

- Amino Acids: (These are the building blocks of proteins. They are present in protein containing foods or available as free form powders or capsules. The essential amino acids * are amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body from other available resources, and therefore must be supplied as part of the diet. "Complete" proteins contain all of these, whilst "incomplete" proteins do not. The amino acids are:

Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Cysteine, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine*, Leucine*, Lysine, Methionine*, Phenylalanine*, Proline, Serine, Threonine*, Tryptophan*, Tyrosine, Valine*


Carbohydrates are the chief source of energy for all bodily functions and muscular exertion. They are necessary for the digestion and assimilation of other foods. They help regulate protein and fat metabolism, and fats require carbohydrates to be broken down in the liver. They also provide some of the structural components necessary for the growth and repair of tissues. All carbohydrates contain 4 calories per gram.


- Sugar Cane & Sugar Beets (The main commercial sources of sugar)

- Fresh Fruit & Berries (These contain mainly fructose, a low GI sugar)

- Honey (Honey contains a mix of glucose and fructose)

- Milk (Milk and milk products contain the sugar lactose)

- Prepared Sugars (Glucose/Fructose/Lactose/Maltose, etc. Found in drinks or free form)


- Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Pumpkin & Squash

- Yams, Parsnips & Other Root Vegetables

- Corn, Oats Wheat & Other Grains.

- Wholegrain Flours, Breads & Pastas.

- Brans, Weet Bix & Shredded Wheat Cereals.

- Ancient Grains (Amaranth, Millet, Teth, etc).

- Basmati, Brown & Wild Rice.

- Raw Nuts, Seeds, Beans, Lentils, Couscous & Other Pulses, etc.

- Vegetables such as Carrots and Peas.


Fatty acids are individual isomers of what we more commonly call "fats". There are potentially hundreds of different fatty acids, but just a few dozen that are commonly found in the foods we eat. Nutritionists commonly classify dietary fat as either saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated, based on the number of double bonds that exist in the fat's molecular structure. For each of these three classes, there exists a large number of different chemical variations or "isomers". These include the EFA's or Essential Fatty Acids. Fats are required to produce and build new cells. They are a source of energy and are critical in the transmission of nerve impulses and brain function and development. They are also involved in the synthesis of other essential molecules such as hormones. Fats contain 9 calories per gram.


- Flaxseed, Hempseed, Evening Primrose, Almond, Canola, Olive and Most Other Plant Oils.

- Whole Raw Nuts & Seeds (Some whole seeds need to be cracked or ground to be digested)

- MCT Oils (These are medium chain saturated fats derived from coconut oil, available as a supplement)


- Salmon, Cod, Halibut, Shellfish & Other Fatty Fish/Fish Oils (Fish are high in unsaturated fats and EFA's)

- Dairy Products (Can vary in fat content wildly and can contain high levels of saturated fat)

- Lean Meat & Poultry (Even when trimmed and skinless, these provide fat. Can be high in saturated fat)

- Eggs (Only the yolk contains the mainly saturated fat)


Fiber has no caloric value but is still classed as a macronutrient. Dietary fibers are large carbohydrate molecules containing many different sorts of monosaccharides. The key difference between fiber and other carbohydrates is that they are not broken down by the human digestive system. There Are Two Types Of Fiber: Soluble & Insoluble. These are often found together in the same source.

SOLUBLE FIBERS - Can be dissolved in water (hence the name). These fibers are beneficial in that they can slow the speed of digestion due to their thickness. They are also helpful in maintaining artery health.

INSOLUBLE FIBERS - Things as cellulose which do not dissolve in water. Insoluble fibers do not affect the speed of digestion. They are beneficial to gut health.

- Broccoli / Cauliflower / Cabbage

- Celery / Lettuce / Spinach / Watercress

- Mushrooms / Onions / Carrots

- Green Beans / Peas / Asparagus / Kale

- Bean & Vegetable Sprouts / Beetroot / Leeks

- Cucumber / Zucchini / Aubergine

- Tomato / Capsicum / Silverbeet

- Frozen Mixed Vegetables

- Any Other Non-starchy Vegetable (or similar) of Any Colour

- Any Grain or Grain Product

- Fruits & Berries

- Legumes

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